Having a new granite or marble countertop installed can be exciting! But there might be a lot of questions running through your mind before it all occurs.
Not to worry! We’ve compiled a comprehensive frequently asked question page for your review to answer any of those concerning questions.
Have a question but don’t see it here? Let us know and we’ll be happy to answer it!
- What are “rectified” tiles?
- What is the difference between ceramic & porcelain tiles?
- What is the difference between glazed and unglazed tiles?
- What is the difference between wall and floor tiles?
- What is the difference between interior & exterior tiles?
- Do ceramic & porcelain tiles vary in quality?
- How many tiles do I need?
- What type of tile can be used around my fireplace?
- Can I use high gloss tile on my kitchen counter tops?
- If I drop something, is it going to crack the ceramic tile?
- How can I drill a hole through ceramic tile?
- I’d like to install ceramic tile in my home, but won’t it be cold?
- What’s your opinion about sealing grout? Should it be done?
- What should I know about kitchen and bathroom floor installations?
- What exactly is a tile setter?
- How do tile setters spend their time?
- When will my ceramic tile installation be ready to receive grout?
- How do I keep grout clean?
- How should tile/grout joints be sealed?
- How can you tell if the grout joints need to be resealed?
- When installing tile over my newly poured concrete, how long should I wait before installing ceramic tile?
- Can ceramic tile be installed over my existing particle board?
- Can I use mastic to install my floor tile?
- Can I install ceramic tile over lightweight concrete or gypcrete?
- What is the maximum spacing for floor joists under a tile installation?
- Can cement board be installed directly to the floor joists?
- Why is it necessary to tape the joints on cement board?
- When laying tile on my bathroom floor, is it necessary to remove the toilet?
- Do all tile setters adhere to the recommendations and standards set by NTCA?
- I’m worried that I might drop something and damage a tile. Is ceramic or porcelain tile a smart choice?
- Should I use a sealer on my floor tile?
- What effect does tile size have on installation consideration?
What are “rectified” tiles?
All natural tiles vary slightly between production runs. Sizes change between “batches” and this means that mixing & matching different production batches is seldom possible. “Rectified” tiles are deliberately made over-size, and are then cut on a diamond saw at the factory to a common caliber. The square, saw-cut edges allow for finer (narrower) grout joints between tiles and result in a beautiful and contemporary finished look. Rectified calibration also means that rectified tiles will still work together when modular sizes are mixed. Rectified products have increased in popularity over recent times. Note that rectified tiles need to be installed on a good surface (square & level), and your tile setter should be experienced with the requirements for laying this kind of product.
What is the difference between ceramic & porcelain tiles?
Ceramic tiles have been around for over 2000 years. They typically have a white or red clay “biscuit” with some form of glaze on top. Porcelain tile cost more than ordinary ceramic tile because you are getting a superior product. Porcelain tile requires the finest natural ingredients and a rigidly controlled manufacturing process that utilizes the most advanced processes and technology. Porcelain tiles are made from an extremely finely-powdered “clay” tablet that is pressed under enormous pressure and heat – several hundred degrees hotter than ceramics. Porcelain tiles are much harder and more dense than ceramic tiles. This allows porcelain tiles to be made in very large formats that would be impossible to achieve in a ceramic tile. Porcelain tiles will also often have a colored “biscuit” that matches the surface glaze, or have a color and pattern that extends all the way through the tile. This avoids the common problem with ceramics where the glaze gets chipped and exposes the ugly clay biscuit underneath.
What is the difference between glazed and unglazed tiles?
Glazed tiles are made the same as unglazed except that a glass wear layer called a glaze is fused to its’ surface by means of tremendous heat. The glaze provides an unlimited array of colors and designs. The glaze also protects the tile from staining. Unglazed tiles are true inlays. Unglazed tiles are very similar to glazed tile, except that their surface is not coated. Unglazed ceramic tiles do not show wear because their color extends throughout the tile, making them ideal for commercial applications.
What is the difference between wall and floor tiles?
Wall tiles (because they are not intended to be load bearing) are typically thinner, lighter and softer than floor tiles. Wall tile glazes are not designed to handle the abrasive forces from foot traffic. Increasingly, floor tiles are being applied to walls and this is no problem so long as the walls are strong enough to support their weight and proper ceramic tile installation methods are used. However, it is not usual to recommend using wall tiles in floor applications.
What is the difference between interior & exterior tiles?
Don’t limit yourself to thinking that tile can just be used indoors. It is an ideal patio covering and for decorative front-porch stoops. You can permanently adhere tile to pre-cast concrete walking pads to create stunning garden stepping stones. But if you decide to use ceramic tile outdoors, be sure these tiles meet slip-resistance minimum requirements. Exterior tiles have a surface texture that helps make them slip resistant. Top-quality tile manufacturers make special outdoor tile that has a slightly gritty surface, even though the tile is glazed. The invisible grit provides superb traction when tiles become wet. To be used outdoors,the tile must be frost proof and unglazed for floor use. Make sure the absorption rate is 0.5% or less. We recommends that slip-resistant tiles be used outside in areas exposed to weather and rain, or around swimming pools etc. Exterior tiles are usually graded to indicate their particular slip-resistance. Note that there is always a trade-off between slip resistance and maintenance and cleaning. Slip-resistant tiles will accumulate more dirt and will naturally require more regular attention.
Do ceramic & porcelain tiles vary in quality?
Tile manufacturers grade their products as they come out of the factory. Defective products are clearly labeled “2nd Quality” by Italian manufacturers and are sold at a lesser price. The ASTM standard C-1027 describes test method for determining visible abrasion resistance of glazed ceramic tile. Classification for durability is based upon both the results of this test. All unglazed tile should meet Class IV+ standards when installed in either commercial or residential installations.
- Class 0: Generally not recommended for use on floors
- Class 1: Light traffic, for residential bathroom floors
- Class II: Medium-Light Traffic, residential interiors with the exceptions of kitchens, stairs, landings and areas near external entries.
- Class III: Medium-Heavy Traffic, all residential applications. Commercial applications which are similar in traffic to residential applications. Specifically excepted are areas of prevalent circulation or turning points.
- Class IV: Heavy Traffic, all residential and most commercial applications such as the public areas of exhibition halls, hotels, restaurants, supermarkets, shops and schools.
- Class IV+: Extra Heavy Traffic, all residential and commercial applications similar to Class IV where extra durability may be required.
How many tiles do I need?
Tiles are usually sold by the square feet, so the area to be tiled needs to be carefully measured to establish how many square feet are involved. This can be done by your architect, builder or preferably your tile setter. Note that there is always a degree of “wastage” resulting from the cuts required to achieve your tile layout. The contingency allowance for wastage is best estimated by your tile setter, but is typically between +5% and +15%, depending on the tiles being used and the complexity of the particular design and layout. Also, consider that it is always wise to keep several spare tiles just in case replacements are required at a later date.
What type of tile can be used around my fireplace?
Any tile can be used on the face of a fireplace. Putting the tile directly in the firebox is not recommended, but high-fired ceramic tile is often used directly on top of and surrounding the firebox. For instance, the Wittus wood stove is fully ceramic clad with a choice of high-fired ceramic tile in a choice of 19 colors.
If I drop something, is it going to crack the ceramic tile?
It depends. With proper installation, ceramic tile is very durable. If you drop a glass or dish, the glass or dish will most likely break, while the tile may chip or crack.
I’d like to install ceramic tile in my home, but won’t it be cold?
Not necessarily. Porcelain tile is no different in temperature than anything else in the room except that it holds its temperature better because of its mass. Of course, cool is good in warm weather climates and it’s easy to warm things up with an area rug or two.
What’s your opinion about sealing grout? Should it be done?
Not necessarily. There are a lot of contractors who will tell you yes, and still others who will tell you no. The reason for sealer is to make cleaning and maintenance easier. There has been a trend in recent years to use light colored grouts in the main floors of the home in order to match lighter colored tiles, and a sealer is used to prevent “wear paths”– darkening of the grout joints in areas of main traffic in the home. Unfortunately, in my experience, sealers will not prevent this. They’ll only delay the inevitable. You’re much better off to use either a medium or darker colored grout. As for using sealer in the bathroom, sealer will help, but again, over time, grout will discolor somewhat, or “age”, and cleaners will be, for the most part, just as effective, with or without sealer.
Nothing is going to help keep grout looking fresher then choosing a medium colored grout that hides the inevitable dirt that will end up on a grouted floor. In showers and tubs areas, you usually have the opposite effect with lighter colored soap scum and hard water.
What should I know about kitchen and bathroom floor installations?
When you’re thinking of tiling your kitchen or bathroom floor, take into consideration the disruption in your daily life. Some preparation can be done well in advance of the tiling project. You will have to remove cabinets and doors if a new sub flooring will be applied. For the kitchen floor project, set aside a long weekend so the kitchen can be back in operation as quickly as possible. How long does it take?
Tiling the average Kitchen floor takes usually 3 to 4 days and involves the following:
If you want to install kitchen floor tile where it will be covered by cabinet bases or other permanent fixtures.
- Remove Cabinets If Needed.
- In some cases cabinets must be removed to take out the old flooring or to replace the sub floor.
- Consider The Appliances
- Free standing appliances, such as dishwashers, ranges and refrigerators should be removed from the kitchen to install tile underneath the appliance location.
- Drawing Layouts
- Good layouts start with accurate measurements and detailed scale drawings. Use these drawings to experiment with potential layouts until you’re satisfied. Try to:
- Center the tile within the room and keep the final tiles at opposite side equal in size.
- Minimize the number of cuts required.
- Disguise disparities in rooms that are not square.
- Laying out borders, diagonal sets, or running bonds in that stage are also important.
- Good layouts start with accurate measurements and detailed scale drawings. Use these drawings to experiment with potential layouts until you’re satisfied. Try to:
- Tiling the floor
- If you are working with a complex layout tiling around a series of obstacles, or setting tiles on the diagonal. You may find out that you need to shift the layout slightly to keep from cutting very small tile for edges or corners.
What exactly is a tile setter?
Tile-setters install the tile floors and walls that we use in bathrooms, kitchens, hallways or patios, or that we see in hospitals, swimming pools, or in other places where it is useful to have a durable, water-resistant, easy-to-clean surface. They work with ceramic tile, or with other materials, like porcelain, slate, granite, limestone, glass and marble. Whether it’s palatial estates featured in Architectural Digest or the Capital building, the work of tile setters is all around us.
Tile-setting is not just a trade, but a craft. Many people in the business take great pride in what they do. Getting a job right takes skill, and professionals and laymen alike, can instantly recognize perfection or sloppy work when they see it.
Tile-setters use cement or “mastic”, a very sticky paste, to install tile, first nailing a support of metal mesh to the floor, wall or ceiling to be tiled. They then use a trowel to apply a cement mortar called a “scratch coat” onto the metal screen. After this dries, they apply another coat of mortar to level the surface and then apply mortar to the back to the tile and place it onto the surface. They separate tile evenly with plastic joints, and line them up with a straight edge before tapping them into place. After this cement dries, tile setters fill the spaces between tiles with a fine cement called grout.
The hardest part of the job is getting tiles into uneven, small corners. In order to do this properly, tile-setters cut and shape tiles so they fit around corners, cabinets, sinks, and windows. This calls for patience, good measuring skills, and some physical stamina.
Because tiles vary in color, shape, and size, tile-setters need an eye for design rather than just simple technical know-how. Many create intricate and very beautiful mosaic designs in the course of their work and they must be able to visualize patterns and be able to center a design so it meets properly at points like doorways. This calls for a good eye for symmetry and is definitely a tricky business. That explains why most people call in professionals to do such work rather than opting to do it themselves.
- Measuring and marking surfaces to be tiled
- Using tile-cutters and biters to cut and shape tile
- Spreading first layer of concrete or mastic over surface
- Cutting wire mesh to required size and tacking to surface
- Applying a cement onto the mesh and leveling to the right thickness
- Applying another layer of mastic or other adhesive base on surface to form base for tile
- Applying cement adhesive to the back of the tile and positioning tile
- Tapping with trowel handle to attach tile to adhesive base
- Filling in spaces between tiles with grout
- Applying a sealer
When will my ceramic tile installation be ready to receive grout?
Most standard thin-set mortars will reach initial cure within 24 hours; however certain job conditions could affect the final cure time required. Always refer to and comply with the manufacturer’s instructions listed on the thin-set bag.
How do I keep grout clean?
The secret to keeping grout clean is to ensure that all grout joints are properly sealed after tiles are installed. Your tiles will not absorb moisture through their top surface, but grout is basically colored cement, and is quite porous and absorbent. Sealing is a simple spray on – wipe off procedure that uses proprietary product. Remember that grout seal needs to be reapplied every few years to ensure the integrity of the seal. We are happy to advise you regarding grout sealing products and procedures.
What is the difference between sanded and unsanded tile grout?
Unsanded tile grout is used on ceramic tile that has been installed with a grout joint width of less than 1/8 of an inch wide and should always be used on polished natural stone products. Sanded tile grout is used on tile with a grout joint width equal to or greater than 1/8 of an inch.
How should tile/grout joints be sealed?
Tile grout joints can be sealed with a penetrating/impregnating type grout sealer. Sealing grout with these products will not change the appearance or color of the grout, and they are designed to prevent moisture from absorbing into the grout where it would otherwise leave a stain. However, sealers do not stop topical dirt buildup, which can be removed easily with a mild neutral cleaner if the grout has been sealed.
When installing tile over my newly poured concrete, how long should I wait before installing ceramic tile?
Industry standard is 28 days between concrete pouring and ceramic tile installation. Increasingly tighter timelines in the construction industry make it difficult to schedule the traditional 28-day wait to install tile over newly poured concrete. One successful system consists of a liquid membrane, with crack-isolation properties, that can be applied over concrete that is just three days old. The membrane is followed by a quick-setting mortar that allows tile or stone to be installed the same day.
Can ceramic tile be installed over my existing particle board?
Because ceramic tile is rigid and somewhat brittle, a strong underlayment is the most important part of the tile installation. Interior-grade plywood and particle board are not considered a strong enough floor underlayment. Therefore, we do not recommend laying floor tile over particle board. The particle board should be replaced with a suitable substrate before installing ceramic tile.
Can I use mastic to install my floor tile?
It is preferred to use a thin set mortar for floors, but in residential use, you can use mastic with tile up to 6×6 on floors. If you are installing tile in an area that is going to be exposed to water conditions, use a mastic that is water-proof so that it will hold up well. This is very important. If you are applying floor tile in areas not exposed to water you can use a mastic that is not water-proof. Epoxy adhesives are also available but their drying times can be difficult to control.
Can I install ceramic tile over lightweight concrete or gypcrete?
No. Tile installation is not recommended over gypsum products. The moisture in the setting materials will deteriorate the gypsum cement.
Why is it necessary to tape the joints on cement board?
On walls it is definitely necessary. Fiberglass tape and thin set mortar are used to put the tape in place. On floors, it is not normally necessary, but sometimes is recommended depending on the application. Refer to manufacturers and proven industry standard instructions.
When laying tile on my bathroom floor, is it necessary to remove the toilet?
Yes. It gives a much nicer look. If you tile around the toilet instead of removing it, when the toilet needs to be replaced, it will be difficult to find a toilet that will fit in the same space as the old one.
Do all tile setters adhere to the recommendations and standards set by NTCA?
No. The National Tile Contractors Association is not a governing body and the industry allows builders, suppliers and tile setters to follow the minimum guidelines set within the Building Codes. The Building Codes DO NOT properly address the correct methods of ceramic tile and stone installation. Builders and tile setters often get away with less than adequate workmanship.
I’m worried that I might drop something and damage a tile. Is ceramic or porcelain tile a smart choice?
The good news about ceramic and porcelain tile is that in the event a tile is damaged it can be extracted and replaced without a great deal of effort or cost. Usually, there are some extra tiles left over after installation that should be saved just for such an event. Be sure to ask the tile installer for any usable extra tile.
sture and you can not change or alter the appearance or the sheen of a ceramic or porcelain tile by adding a sealer, a sealer in not recommended. However, tile installers often use pre-grout sealers on ceramic tile to keep fine color pigments from embedding into the microscopic pours of the tile during the grouting process. The pre-grout sealer is removed after grouting. Sealers are designed to protect porous products and to provide wearable surfaces to porous products. All natural stone products and cementitious grouts are porous products and should be sealed with a penetrating / impregnating sealer. Some stone products are also sealed with enhancing sealers to deepen and darken the stones’ natural colors.
What effect does tile size have on installation consideration?
With the introduction of large dimensioned rectified tile (24 inch x 24 inch) the quality of the tile has become more an issue, especially as it relates to floor preparation.